The importance of microbiological diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis is emphasized. The hallmark of tuberculosis infection is the formation of granulomas in the vicinity of infectious foci. Ramakrishnans laboratory has studied the molecular pathogenesis of tb using the power of forward genetics in the zebrafish. What the clinician should know core curriculum presents information about tuberculosis tb for healthcare professionals. Tuberculosis airborne disease caused by the bacterium mycobacterium tuberculosis m. Active tuberculosis develops in only 5% to 10% of persons exposed to m.
Tuberculosis tb remains one of the deadliest infectious diseases responsible for millions of deaths annually across the world. Tb disease symptoms are often initially mistaken for a smokers cough, allergies, or chronic bronchitis from a. Overall, our understanding of the pathogenesis of tuberculosis supports a framework of immune responses which include the initial response to inhaled organisms outright elimination or establishment of a latent state, granuloma formation and establishment of a state of latent infection, and reactivation of latent infection. Tuberculosis is a communicable disease and patients with pulmonary tb are the most important source of infection. Transmission and pathogenesis of tuberculosispdf icon pdf 760kb. Transmission and pathogenesis of tuberculosis global tb center. When a person develops active tb disease, the symptoms may be mild for many months. Tuberkulosis ekstrapulmonal dapat terjadi pada 2530% anak yang terinfeksi tb.
Tbc tersebar lewat udara bila orang yang mengidap tbc di paru paru atau tenggorokan batuk, bersin atau berbicara dan mengirimnya ke udara. Tb tulang dan sendi terjadi pada 510% anak yang terinfeksi, dan paling. The bacilli are able to traverse the blood brain barrier bbb and blood cerebrospinal fluid barrier bcsfb through various virulence factors that enable the invasion of and migration through cerebral vascular endothelial cells, or are. Chapter 2 transmission and pathogenesis of tuberculosis. Phagocytosis of tubercle bacilli by antigenpresenting cells in human lung alveoli initiates a complex infection process by mycobacterium tuberculosis and a potentially protective immune response by the host. Tuberculosis can be separated into three categories of progression. Data who menunjukkan bahwa kasus tb paru di negara berkembang banyak terdapat pada umur produktif 1529 tahun. Viral disease is a sum of the effects on the host of virus replication and of the immune response. However, this complex subject is made more complicated by lack of uniform terminology, failure to recognize many events that may occur regardless of any difference of opinion in regard to their origin, failure to recognize fully the factors modifying the development of tuberculous disease under. The human host serves as a natural reservoir for m. Nov 21, 2008 tuberculosis is a chronic infectious disease that predominantly affects the lungs. Given that patients with tb can have mild symptoms for months without being aware and the contagiousness of the disease, tb remains a difficult disease to identify.
Who treatment guidelines for multidrug and rifampicinresistant tuberculosis, 2018 update biographies of experts proposed for the guideline development group disclaimer and rationale experts convened by who in a guideline development groups provide technical and normative advice to who. Tuberculosis tb or known as the white plague during the 19 th century, has inflicted the human race ever since. Tuberculosis 24 tuberculosis tb is an infectious disease that is acquired by inhaling the bacteria that cause the disease. Early diagnosis and treatment with effective drugs is a mainstay of. It is the most dangerous bacterial infection responsible for severe increase in death cases. Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes tuberculosis tb and is a leading infectious cause of death in adults worldwide. Infection is initiated by inhalation of droplet nuclei, which are particles of 15. Introduction tb is caused by tubercle bacilli, which belong to the genus mycobacterium. Reaktivasi ini jarang terjadi pada anak, tetapi sering pada remaja dan dewasa muda. Knowledge of the pathology of human pulmonary tb gained by 150.
Symptoms are usually mild and tend to present over a period of weeks, months, or sometimes years. In the old days, when people didnt have money, they exchanged their things with each other by direct negotiation which is called purchase and sale agreement for example. Pathogenesis and immune response in tuberculous meningitis. Tuberculosis is a speciality journal focusing on basic experimental research on tuberculosis, notably on bacteriological, immunological and pathogenesis aspects of the disease. A read is counted each time someone views a publication summary such as the title, abstract, and list of authors, clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the fulltext. International journal of tuberculosis and lung disease the union. Simpo pdf merge and split unregistered version tinggi dari pada sebuah tiket anakanak, berapakah. Proporsi pasien tuberkulosis paru terkonfirmasi bakteriologis di antara semua pasien.
Is the most prevalent communicable infectious disease on earth and remains out of control in many developing nations it is a chronic. Infectious droplet nuclei are deposited in the alveolar spaces of the contact person where mycobacterium tuberculosis m. Joining efforts to control two related global epidemics. Tb primarily affects the lungs, but can affect any part of the body. Kunjungan pasien tuberculosis paru tb paru di puskesmas nogosari boyolali termasuk dalam kategori patuh.
Tb paru menyerang siapa saja tua, muda bahkan anakanak. Mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogenesis and molecular. Etiologi tuberkulosis merupakan penyakit infeksi yang disebabkan oleh mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tb cases reported by the media in us tb found at seaside high school 124 exposures the oregonian exposure to tb at daycare center 100. Tb ditularkan dengan kuman dalam titik air yang sangat kecil yang dapat dihirup saat orang yang mengidap tb aktif batuk, bersin, tertawa atau berbicara. Berdasar hasil pemeriksaan dahak bta tb paru dibagi atas. About 9% of mdr tb cases also have resistance to two other classes of drugs, or extensively drugresistant tb xdr tb. The tubercle bacillus was discovered by robert koch in 1882. Because of the complexity and durability of this organism it is difficult to understand and treat. In the united states, the majority of tb cases are caused by. Tuberculosis aersols, ingestion local lns primary complex blood generalized tb miliary tb macrophage killedsome tb 1st week aggregation of macrophage tubercle form fibrous capsule and caseated center with or without calcification and liquification. The ability of the organism to efficiently establish latent infection has enabled it to spread to nearly onethird of individuals worldwide.
Tuberculosis is a chronic granul omatous infectious dis ease. Once rculosis is inhaled it enters our lungs and alveolar macrophages engulf it by interaction between the macrophage cell membrane and its pathogen membrane. Mar 17, 2017 tuberculosis mechanism of disease, symptoms, and diagnosis summary starts at 7minutes, 15 seconds. Reported tb cases united states, 19822011 ses year cdc.
Tb paru kronik biasanya terjadi akibat reaktivasi kuman di dalam lesi yang tidak mengalami resolusi sempurna. Diagnosis lain seperti asma, tb paru, bronkiektasis, keganasan dan penyakit paru kronik lainnya dapat dipisahkan. No installation, no registration, its free and easy to use. The clinical manifestations of tuberculosis represent a complex interaction between the causative organism, mycobacterium tuberculosis, and the human host immune response.
Jika hanya tb paru pengobatan cukup obat anti tb selama minimal 6 bulan, bila menderita keduanya perlu minum obat tb ditambah anti biotik selama kirakira 1 2 minggu. Virulent tubercle bacilli vulnerable region via a bacillemia in first infection. Factors sourceenvironment organism host how does one get tb. If the body is strong enough, it will fight off the tb bacteria and not become infected. A dose of one to 10 bacilli are dispersed throughout the air, making the risk of transmission likely. It is described as a chronic infectious disease caused by an organism called mycobacterium tuberculosis through droplet transmission, like coughing, sneezing, or if the person inhales the infected droplet it can be considered as primary or secondary infection depending on. Diagnosis tb paru pada orang dewasa ditegakkan dengan ditemukannya kuman tb bta diagnosis utama pemeriksaan lain seperti foto. Tuberkulosis pada kehamilan mempunyai gejala klinis yang serupa dengan. Pathogenesis of tuberculosis pathogenesis in a previously unexposed, immunocompetent person depends on the development of anti mycobacterial cell mediated immunity,which confers resistance to bacteria and development of hypersensitivity to mycobacterial antigens. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is one of the most notorious pathogens on earth. Sekurangkurangnya 2 dari 3 spesimen dahak sps hasilnya bta positif.
Pathogenesis of mycobacterium tuberculosis and its interaction with. Tuberculosis tb is an infectious disease caused by the bacillus mycobacterium tuberculosis mtb. Pathophysiology tuberculosis rvs chaitanya koppala 2. Find out exactly how tb causes damage to the lungs. The current paradigm of the pathogenesis of tb considers tb to be a one act play in which the caseating granuloma modulated by cell mediated immunity cmi is the characteristic lesion of all tb. Pdf joiner allows you to merge multiple pdf documents and images into a single pdf file, free of charge.
The core curriculum presents information about tuberculosis for healthcare. Mdr tb was more prevalent among the afghan patients. The epidemiology of miliary tb has been altered by use of chemotherapy for treatment of malignancy, use of biologic agents, the hiv epidemic, and immigration patterns. The lack of capital, to pay for treatments and for health workers to monitor this disease, is a large obstacle that many thirdworld countries are faced with in the fight against tb. The number and rate of tb cases has steadily fallen, but the number of foreignborn persons with tb has remained constant. The cycle of tb infection begins with dispersion of m. Diagnosis tb paru semua suspek tb diperiksa 3 spesimen dahak dalam waktu 2 hari, yaitu sewaktu pagi sewaktu sps. In the patients lung, the bacilli are phagocytized by alveolar macrophage cells, which then invade the underlying epithelium. Survival mechanisms of pathogenic mycobacterium tuberculosis. This document, produced by the centers for disease control and prevention cdc division of tuberculosis elimination dtbe, updates the 2000 core curriculum. Kochs contributions to the study of tuberculosis, and to medicine and microbiology in general, were enormous. Not a significant problem until the 17th and 18th centuries as urbanization.
Infection occurs via aerosol, and inhalation of a few droplets containing m. What are the signs and symptoms of tb disease is suspected, the person should be isolated tb disease. The burden of tb in many countries is compounded in those who have co infection with the human immunodeficiency virus hiv. Immunology and pathogenesis of pulmonary mycobacteria. The pathogenesis of tuberculosis the first one hundred and. In 2006, the emergence of extensively drugresistant tuberculosis xdr tb was first reported. They discovered that mutations in lta4h, a key enzyme in the eicosanoid pathway that alters the levels of the cytokine tumor necrosis factor tnf, affect tuberculosis pathogenesis by regulating the inflammatory response. Tuberculosis in children i free download as powerpoint presentation. Centers for disease control and prevention cdc 312,748 views. The first stage is an asymptomatic state that can persist for many years in the host, called latent tb. Dec 30, 2012 cdc tuberculosis tb transmission and pathogenesis video duration.
Patofisiologi dan penatalaksanaan multidrug resistent tuberculosis paru. Nevertheless, a third new beginning is now necessary to merge the. Fatigue, malaise, weight loss, lowgrade fever, night sweats, cough, sputum, are the main symptoms. Levels are much higher in those previously treated about 20%. The frequency of mdr tb varies substantially between countries. An estimated 58 million lives were saved through tb diagnosis and treatment between 2000 and 2018. Viral pathogenesis this lecture will define and discuss the basic principles of viral pathogenesis, the entire process by which viruses cause disease. Tb is a contagious disease that is transmitted from person to person through coughing and breathing in airborne droplets that contain bacteria. Always seek the advice of a qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Transmission and pathogenesis of tuberculosis john bernardo, m. They travel to the terminal airways and alveoli commonly at the middle lobes, upper regions of lower lobes and lower regions of upper lobes and are phagocytosed by alveolar macrophages.
Sebagian besar penderita tb paru di negara berkembang berumur dibawah 50 tahun. Introduction tuberculosis tb is an infectious disease caused by the bacillus mycobacterium tuberculosis mtb. Department of health and human services, cdc, october 2012. Tuberkulosis adalah disebabkan oleh jangkitan kuman bakteria mycobacterium. Finally, the model also considers the merging of two lesions when they. The existence of tuberculosis tb in ancient times is evident from the fact that it was observed in mummies from egypt and peru 9000 bc and has also been described as yakshama in the oldest indian medical treatises of charaka samhita and sushruta samhita, dating back to and 600 bc, respectively. In the patients lung, the bacilli are phagocytized by alveolar macrophage cells, which then invade the underlying. Main articles this technique was recommended by the who to be used in place of traditional smear microscopy for the diagnosis of drugresistant tb or tb in hivinfected patients 16. Limfadenopati dengan tb paru juga dapat ditemukan, terutama pada pasien dengan infeksi human immunodeficiency virus hiv 15. The nature of tuberculosis has been studied by many, but has led to no successful results. Tuberculosis tb is an airborne infectious disease caused by organisms of the mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Penelitian rizkiyani pada tahun 2008 menunjukkan jumlah penderita baru tb paru positif 87,6% berasal.
Tuberculous granulomas are highly organized bodies with a complex cell composition and wellorchestrated biochemical pathways. Marais bj, gie rp, schaaf ac, obihara cc, starke jj, enarson da, dkk. It retains many stains after decoloration with acidalcohol, which is the basis of the acidfast stains used for pathologic identification. Batuk dapat terjadi pada infeksi saluran napas akut, asma, serta penyakit paru obstruktif kronis ppok. Dec 11, 20 in order to study its pathogenesis, diverse experimental animal models of brain tb have been established in rabbits 4,5, mouse 6,7, and pigs. Pathophysiology of tuberculosis linkedin slideshare. Evidence for spinal tb in egyptian mummies and precolumbian remains 2. In human, a tb index case may infect a contact person through cough and expectoration, so the lung is the primary route of infection and often the main tissue exhibiting tb. The current paradigm of the pathogenesis of tb considers tb to a one act play in which the caseating granuloma modulated by cmi is the characteristic lesion of all tb. The dots in the air represent droplet nuclei containing tubercle bacilli.
As one of the most common infections in the world, tb remains a major problem in many. It is described as a chronic infectious disease caused by an organism called mycobacterium tuberculosis through droplet transmission, like coughing, sneezing, or if the person inhales the infected droplet. Tuberculosis tb is defined as a disease caused by members of the m. With a view towards energy efficiency, macrophages are not normally activated to full antimicrobial function upon the initial contact with pathogen and this has dire consequences in the case of mycobacterial infection1. Pulmonary center boston university school of medicine massachusetts department of public health division of tb prevention and control 2011 stevenson vivian leigh brontes keats transmission and pathogenesis. Although they reproduce in some extend the human lesions, these models are artificial because they use the direct intracerebral or intravenous route of infection, instead of the natural respiratory route. This is when the host first comes into contact with tb bacteria.
This leads to lymphadenopathy, a characteristic clinical manifestation of primary tuberculosis tb. Etiology tb is caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis, a slowgrowing obligate aerobe and a facultative intracellular parasite. Although the disease of consumption was recognized many centuries ago, the modern understanding of what has remained one of the worlds great public health problems is usually traced to the work of robert koch. Explain how ltbi and tb disease develop pathogenesis. About 90 percent of those who become infected show no sign of disease latent infection, but harbor the organism and have a risk of developing active tb later. Tuberkulosis tb adalah penyakit infeksi yang disebabkan oleh. Epidemiology the study of the distribution and determinants of healthrelated states or events in specified populations, and the application of this study to the control of health problems tuberculosis tuberculosis is a specific. May 15, 2014 pathogenesis of tuberculosis tuberculosis introduction etiology epidemiology pathogenesis m. To better measure morbidity and mortality caused by m. Batuk kronik batuk kronik adalah batuk hilang timbul selama 3 bulan dalam 2 tahun. Mycobacterium tuberculosis yang dapat menyerang pada berbagai organ tubuh mulai dari paru dan organ di luar paruseperti kulit, tulang, persendian, selaput otak, usus serta ginjal yang sering disebut dengan ekstrapulmonal tbc chandra,2012. Who treatment guidelines for multidrug and rifampicin. Tuberculosis is a hypersensitive granulomatous infectious disease caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis m.
This test has been shown to have a sensitivity of greater than 98 per cent in sputum smearpositive tb cases and 75 to 90 per cent in smearnegative tb cases. By understanding the mechanisms and behaviors behind a tb. Tuberkulosis masih menjadi masalah kesehatan di dunia demikian juga. These videos do not provide medical advice and are for informational purposes only. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a highly humanadapted pathogen. For reporting purposes, cases with both pulmonary and extrapulmonary disease are classified as pulmonary tb by the united states centers for disease control and prevention cdc.
International standards for tuberculosis care, edition 3. Overview history of tb tb transmission drugresistant tb tb pathogenesis progression from ltbi to tb disease sites of tb disease tb classification system case studies. Tb is spread from person to person through the air. May 30, 2012 william bishais research focuses on understanding the pathogenesis of tuberculosis tb and working to control tb by seeking improved biomarkers, diagnostics, and drugs.
Klasifikasi tb dibagi menjadi dua yaitu tb paru dan tb ekstra paru. Citescore values are based on citation counts in a given year e. Tbc dapat merusak paru paru manusia atau bagian tubuh lain dan mengakibatkan sakit parah. The videos are not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. In this paper we present a general overview of tb including the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment guidelines. The pathogenesis of tuberculosis the first one hundred. Walaupun kebanyakan pasien dengan tb paru memiliki gejala batuk, gejala tersebut tidak spesifik untuk tuberkulosis. Request pdf survival mechanisms of pathogenic mycobacterium tuberculosis h37rv mycobacterium tuberculosis h37rv.941 207 1265 95 294 707 1477 668 1399 1254 1559 9 580 1171 475 852 663 708 1392 802 1375 593 817 425 780 1022 683 1480 83 1114